CHAPTER 6

SHIFTING

Introduction

 

One of the most challenging things you will acquire to become a professional driver is how to shift gears. It requires coordination, perseverance, and repetition to master this ability. The information and abilities needed to shift safely and effectively will be covered in this chapter.

 

Key Elements of Shifting

 

Shifting controls — There are three controls that are utilised while shifting a manual gearbox.

 

Accelerator — The engine's fuel flow is controlled by the accelerator. The engine's speed or rpm in each given gear is then determined by that.

 

Shift lever — The transmission's gear selection is controlled by the shift lever. The engine's output is governed by the gear chosen, and this power is subsequently converted into road speed. With minimal road speed, low gear delivers a lot of power. The power required to gain momentum is supplied by lower gears. A high gear increases road speed while supplying less power. Once momentum has been established, a high gear enables the vehicle to reach and maintain greater road speeds.

 

Clutch — The clutch transfers the engine's power to the gearbox. Simply said, it enables you to change gears. When the clutch pedal is depressed, it disengages the transmission from the engine, and gears may be safely Shifting takes skill, coordination, patience and practice. shifted. When the clutch pedal is fully released, the transmission and engine are engaged, and gears generally can’t be safely shifted. Shifting controls need cooperation and exact timing to operate. Over-revving and gear grinding may be brought on by poor timing or a lack of synchronization. Improper shifting may interfere with vehicle control in addition to harming the vehicle's parts. It's easy to coordinate the usage of the clutch with the gearshift lever; just depress the clutch first, then change gears.

 

Upshifting — As mentioned earlier, low gears provide a great deal of power. This power is needed to get a stopped vehicle moving. Select the highest gear possible that will allow the vehicle to move without slipping the clutch or lugging the engine.

 

Downshifting — Downshifting helps a car slow down. It functions as a brake. When necessary, downshifting may also provide the car greater power. Never shift down before it's required. Early downshifting may cause the engine to rev rapidly and potentially harm the engine.

 

When it comes to safe shifting, the speedometer, tachometer, and governor are all essential instruments.

 

Speedometer — The speedometer displays the speed of the vehicle in miles per hour (mph) or kilometers per hour (kph) (mph). Each gear has a range of road speeds that correspond to it (matches). This varies based on the kind of vehicle you are operating. When your vehicle hits the maximum speed permitted by a gear, you must upshift. As soon as your automobile reaches the minimum speed needed for gear, you must downshift.

 

Tachometer — The engine speed is shown on the tachometer in hundreds of revolutions per minute (rpm). It acts as a roadmap for selecting the proper gear. You must change to the next gear when your car hits the maximum rpm for that gear. You must downshift when your car achieves the required minimum rpm for a gear.

 

Note: Electronic fuel pumps also limit the amount of fuel supplied to the engine, requiring you to shift to a higher gear to gain more speed.

 

Governor — The governor prevents the engine from excessively revving while downshifting.

 

Shifting gears — To change ratios on the majority of large vehicles with manual gearboxes, double clutching is necessary. The gears do not grind when double clutching is carried out correctly. The fundamental technique for upshifting and downshifting is as follows.

 

 

Upshifting — To successfully upshift, follow these steps:

 

    • While depressing the clutch and shifting to neutral, release the accelerator;

 

    • Let go of the clutch;

 

    • Permit the engine to run at the rpm necessary for the subsequent gear;

 

    • Press the clutch while simultaneously shifting into the next higher gear;

 

    • Press the accelerator while releasing the clutch at the same time.

 

 

 

Downshifting — To successfully downshift, follow these steps:

 

  • At the same moment as you let off the gas and lower the clutch, shift into neutral;

 

  • Let go of the clutch;

 

  • Use the accelerator to accelerate the engine faster and get it to the rpm needed for the lowest gear;

 

  • Simultaneously depress the clutch and change into the lower gear;

 

  • Let go of the clutch while simultaneously pressing the accelerator.

 

When upshifting or downshifting, it's crucial to maintain the proper engine speed.

 

For advice, go to the owner's handbook for your car. In the absence of manufacturer guidance, a general rule of thumb is to increase the rpm by around 500 rpm while shifting gears.

 

Transitioning requires experience. Experienced drivers use intuition and instincts to shift gears. The engine sound and car's handling inform them.

When driving a car with a manual gearbox, you need a third-shifting ability. This ability, also known as hitting a gear or hunting gear, is utilized when your car is moving and you need to shift into the right gear. Follow these steps to perform this skill:

 

1. Consider how the engine ought to feel in that gear and at that speed. The vehicle's speed is another factor that experienced drivers consider. There is a certain gear you should look for at each speed.

2. Depress the clutch and push the shift lever lightly against the gear you think is the correct gear.

3. Continue this until the shift lever goes in without excessive grinding. If this doesn’t work, move the shift lever and feel how changing the engine

 

You will hear a high-pitched grinding sound if the rpm is too high. You will hear a deep, hollow grinding sound if the rpm is too low. The shift lever vibrates more intensely and more often while the engine is running at a reasonable rpm. The shift lever will automatically engage the gear once you reach the proper rpm. When this occurs, press the clutch pedal down and position the shift lever. When you've finished, you may let off of the clutch and accelerate.

 

When it comes to the art of shifting, there is no perfect science. Once again, experience may be the greatest tool for mastering this talent.

 

Good shifting skills are the trademark of an accomplished, professional driver. This includes:

 

  • Good timing and coordination;

  • Knowing what gear your vehicle is in at all times;

  • Knowing what the top mph and rpm is for each gear on your vehicle;

  • Making shifts without forcing, raking, or grinding gears;

  • Never riding the clutch;

  • Always using the clutch when shifting;

  • Always using the proper gear for best fuel economy; and

  • Anticipating changes in terrain and/or traffic.

 

Shifting Patterns

 

Different transmissions use different shifting techniques. Five of the most popular shift patterns presently in use are covered in this section.

 

Spicer Pro-Shift Seven Speed — Speed transmission. The seventh gear is at the bottom right when the shift pattern moves from the bottom left to the bottom right.

Upshifting —To upshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

  • Push the clutch down;

  • Locate the first gear by pulling the shift lever as far to the left as you can;

  • Double clutch and raise the shift lever up and to the right while shifting to second;

  • To shift through the rest of the gears, double clutch and follow the standard “H” pattern.

 

Downshifting —To downshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

  • Double clutch and advance the shift lever to move from seventh to sixth gear (be careful to match engine and road speeds before shifting);

 

  • Double clutch and use the traditional "H" Pattern to go through the remaining gears.

 

 

Eaton® Fuller® Nine Speed

 

Upshifting — To successfully upshift, follow these steps:

 

  • Depress the clutch;

 

  • Check if the range lever is down;

 

  • Move the shift to first gear;

 

  • Double clutch when shifting to second through 4th gear,

 

  • lift the range control lever up before moving the gear lever to shift from 4th to 5th gear

  • Shift from 5th through 8th gear

 

 

Downshifting —To downshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

    • Use double clutching to move from eighth to fifth gear (be careful to match engine and road speeds before shifting);

 

    • Before moving the gear lever, depress the range control lever to go from fifth to fourth gear;

 

    • Double clutch to go from fourth to first gear (make sure you are matching engine speed to road speed before shifting).

 

 

Eaton® Fuller® Super Ten

 

Upshifting — To upshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

  • Press the clutch down.

 

  • Place first gear on the gear shift lever;

 

  • Do a splitter shift (from first to second, third to fourth, etc.), push the splitter button forward, release the gas pedal, wait for the gear to engage, and then rev the engine up;

 

  • Push the splitter button back, double clutch, and shift normally to create a lever shift (second to third, fourth to fifth, etc.).

 

 

Downshifting —To downshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

  • Causing a splitter to move down (tenth to ninth, eighth to seventh, etc.) Push the splitter button back, release the gas, wait for the gears to shift, and then press the accelerator;

 

  • Push the splitter button forward, double clutch, and shift normally to produce a lever shift down

 

Eaton® Fuller® Thirteen Speed

 

Upshifting — To successfully upshift, follow these steps:

 

  • Depress the clutch;

 

  • Move the shift lever to first gear;

 

  • When shifting through fourth gear, double clutch;

 

  • To shift from fourth to fifth gear (from low to high range), lift the range control lever up before moving the gear lever;

 

  • Shift from fifth through eighth gear using normal double clutching;

 

  • To convert from direct to overdrive, press down and release the clutch, accelerate, flick the splitter switch;

 

  • To go from overdrive to direct in the next higher gear, move the gear lever to the next gear and flip the splitter switch before releasing the clutch.

 

Downshifting —To downshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

  • Push down and release the clutch, accelerate, and flip the splitter switch to go from overdrive to direct in the same gear;

  • Turn the splitter switch to overdrive and downshift normally to transition from direct in one gear to overdrive in the next lower gear;

  • To downshift from fifth to fourth gear, depress the range lever, double-clutch, then downshift normally.

 

Semiautomatic transmission — A transmission that shifts semi-automatically employs electronic controls. A semiautomatic gearbox features a clutch and shifting lever, much as a manual transmission does.

 

Rockwell Ten Speed — This transmission system features a low range of gears (first through fifth gear) and a high range of gears (sixth through tenth gear). To access the high range of gears, one uses a range control lever.

 

Upshifting — To successfully upshift, follow these steps:

 

  • Depress the clutch;

 

  • Make sure the range lever is in the low range (down);

 

  • Move the shift lever to first gear (top left);

 

  • When shifting through fifth gear, double clutch;

 

  • To shift from fifth to sixth gear (from low to high range), lift the range control lever up before moving the gear lever;

 

  • Shift from sixth through tenth gear using normal double clutching.

 

Downshifting —To downshift effectively, use the following actions:

 

  • Use a double clutch to change from the tenth to the sixth gear (be cautious to synchronize engine and road speeds before shifting);

 

  • Before moving the gear lever, depress the range control lever to go from sixth to fifth gear;

 

  • Double clutch to go from fifth to first gear (make sure you are matching engine speed to road speed before shifting).

 

Automatic transmission —An automatic gearbox shifts gears without the need for a clutch by use of a torque converter. To shift gears, a lever or button is utilized. The range selection positions on an automatic gearbox are as follows.

 

Neutral —The car is started, stopped, and parked in neutral. Never take the easy way out. Both the gearbox and your ability to manage your car may be harmed by this.

 

Reverse —The reverse is used for the backing. Before putting the car in reverse, it must be stopped.

 

Drive (2-5) —As you accelerate, it starts in the second and immediately goes up to the fifth. As you slow the car down, it also downshifts automatically.

 

Lower range (2-3/2-4) — This range provides engine braking and should be used when road and/or traffic conditions warrant use of a lower gear.

 

Low gear (2) — When operating in mud or snow or driving up a steep incline, this gear is employed.

 

Creeper gear (1) —This gear offers the most traction and ought to only be used while traveling off-road.

 

Summary

 

Shifting fundamentals were presented in this chapter. Keep in mind that different manufacturers use different precise shifting patterns and that you should always examine the owner's handbook before utilizing a new sort of shifting pattern. Also keep in mind that acquiring this expert driving ability requires coordination, patience, and practice.